Menu

Ettevõtte saneerimine osakapitali suurendamise kaudu – üks võimalik abinõu?

168 kommentaari

Foto: Unsplash fotopank

Saneerimine kui ettevõtte tervendamine on olnud Eesti majanduskeskkonnas suhteliselt harv nähtus. Samas saneerimisseadus jõustus juba 26.12.2008, kuid saneerimise tulemuslikkusesse üldjuhul ei usuta. Saneerimine on abinõude kompleksi rakendamine ettevõtte majanduslike raskuste ületamiseks, tema likviidsuse taastamiseks, kasumlikkuse parandamiseks ja jätkusuutliku majandamise tagamiseks.
 

Tihti nähakse saneerimises vaid pahatahtlikke võimalusi n-ö vee sogamiseks. Taoliste arvamuste ja kuvandite kujunemisele on kaasa aidanud erinevad probleemsed näited, kus saneerimist on kasutatud pankroti edasi lükkamiseks, varade kõrvaldamiseks, võlausaldajate survestamiseks jms.

 
Saneerimisele asudes peaks tavapäraselt olema võimalik teha esialgne hinnang juba ainuüksi paarile põhilisele küsimusele vastuste leidmisel:
1. Kas ettevõte veel reaalselt tegutseb ka saneerimisavalduse esitamise ajal?
2. Kas ettevõttel on olemas töötajad, kes reaalselt suudaksid toota lisandväärtust?
3. Kas ettevõttel on olemas varad, millega lisandväärtust toota?  
 

Põhiline – saneerimisega ei tohi jääda hiljaks!

 
Kindlasti on olemas veel olulisi küsimusi, millele tuleks saneerimist planeerides otsida vastused, aga kui juba loetletud punktides olevatele küsimustele on leitud positiivsed vastused, on tõenäoline, et ettevõtet peaks proovima siiski saneerimida.
 
Meie büroo on aidanud saneerida mitmeid ettevõtteid, aga mõneti teistsuguse lähenemisega on üks hiljutine, milles saneerimisabinõuna kasutati osakapitali suurendamist läbi võlausaldaja kohustuste juriidilise isiku osaga asendamise (Tartu Maakohtu 28.07.2019 määrus saneerimiskava kinnitamise kohta tsiviilasjas nr. 2-19-4016 ja Riigikohtu 25.11.2019 määrus nr 2-19-4016).
 

Kogu asja probleem oli – kahe võrdse osalusega osaniku ja juhatuse liikme vahel tekkisid erimeelsused, mis hakkasid kahjustuma nendele kuuluva ettevõtte majandustegevust.

 
Juhtorganite/osanike vahelise tüli kese oli selles, et ettevõttel oli suur sissenõutavaks muutunud võlgnevus võlausaldaja ees ning juhtorganite/osanike nägemus ettevõtte tegevuse jätkamise osas ei klappinud.
Foto: Unsplash fotopank
Ühe poole arvates tuli leida lahendus võlgnevuse tasumiseks ja ettevõtte tegevuse jätkamiseks s.t lahenduseks ettevõtte saneerimine. Seevastu teisel poolel ei olnud välja pakkuda mistahes lahendust võlgnevuse tasumiseks ja ettevõtte tegevuse jätkamiseks, ta ka ei soovinud ise antud ettevõttesse investeerida.

 

Teise poole tegevus ja hoiak oli pigem destruktiivne, ettevõtte tegevust kahjustav, pankrotmenetluse poole vaatav. 

 

Tekkinud olukorras otsustas üks osanik/juhatuse liige esitada saneerimisavalduse nii ettevõtte kui ka võlausaldajate huvides. Saneerimiskava koostamisel otsustasime kasutada saneerimisabinõuna äriseadustikust ja saneerimisseadusest tulenevat võimalust – suurendada ettevõtte osakapitali (võlausaldaja võlgnevuse ulatuses) ja kujundada võlausaldaja nõue ümber selliselt, et võlausaldaja nõue ettevõtte vastu asendatakse ettevõtte osaga võlausaldaja võlgnevuse ulatuses. Teine osanik vaidles sellele lahendusele vastu ! 
 
Kohus kinnitas ettevõtte poolt esitatud saneerimiskava. Kinnitatud saneerimiskava kohaselt suurendati ettevõtte osakapitali võlausaldaja nõude ulatuses ja asendati nõue ettevõtte osaga, mis vastab võlausaldaja nõude suurusele.
 
Kokkuvõttes kujunes vaidluse põhiküsimuseks see, kas kohus saab saneerimiskava kinnitades kohtulahendiga asendada ühe osaniku tahteavaldust, millega üks 50% osalusega osanik hääletab osakapitali suurendamise otsuse poolt ja teine 50% osalusega osanik hääletab vastu ning samas esitatakse kohtule saneerimiskava, milles võlausaldaja nõustub oma  nõude asendama ettevõtte osaga. Meie praktikas ei ole varasemalt taolist saneerimisabinõu kohaldatud. 
 
Saneerimiskavas viidati TsÜS § 68 lg-le 5, mis sätestab, et kui isik on kohustatud tegema kindla sisuga tahteavalduse, asendab tahteavaldust jõustunud või viivitamata täitmisele kuuluv kohtulahend, millega isikut kohustatakse sellist tahteavaldust andma.
Foto: Unsplash fotopank
 
Kavas asuti seisukohale, et tulenevalt hea usu põhimõttest on osanikel kohustus ettevõtte huvides olev otsus vastu võtta (antud juhul osakapitali suurendamise otsus) ja kui üks osanikest ei ole sellega nõus, siis vastavat tahteavaldust on võimalik TsÜS § 68 lg 5 alusel asendada kohtulahendiga. Seda kõike on muidugi võimalik teha vaid olukorras, kus ettevõte ei ole veel püsivalt maksejõuetuks muutunud.
 
Euroopa kohtupraktikas on näiteks Saksa Ülemkohus märkinud, et hea usu põhimõttest võib osanikule tuleneda kohustus hääletada sellise ühingu seisukohast vajaliku abinõu poolt, mis on vajalik ühingu säilitamiseks või märkimisväärse kahju ärahoidmiseks, kui abinõu on objektiivselt möödapääsmatu ja see on osanike kaitsmist väärivate oluliste huvide tagamiseks vajalik ning kui sellise abinõu kohaldamine oleks ka ühingu huvide seisukohast kohustuslik (BGH: Anforderungen an Zustimmungspflicht der Gesellschafter aufgrund Treuepflicht. GmbHG § 47 – DStR 2016, 1693. BGH Urteil v. 12.4. 2016 – II ZR 275/14).
 
Saneerimiskava kinnitava kohtumääruse vaidlustas osanik/juhatuse liige, kes ei olnud võlausaldaja nõude rahuldamisest ja ettevõtte tegevuse jätkamisest huvitatud. Tartu Ringkonnakohus jättis määruskaebuse läbi vaatamata viidates SanS § 37 lg-le 3, mis sätestab, et määruse peale, millega saneerimiskava kinnitatakse või kinnitamata jäetakse, võib ettevõtja või võlausaldaja esitada määruskaebuse.
 
Kohus leidis, et kuivõrd osanik/juhatuse liige esitas määruskaebuse oma nimel ja huvides, mitte saneeritava ettevõtte esindajana ja ettevõtte huvides, siis SanS § 37 lg 3 ei kohaldu. Osanik/juhatuse liige esitas ringkonnakohtu määrusele määruskaebuse Riigikohtule, kuid viimane keeldus määruskaebust menetlusse võtmast selgitades, et osanik/juhatuse liige ei ole SanS § 37 lg 3 kohaselt ei võlausaldaja ega ettevõtja ning ta ei ole määruskaebust esitanud ettevõtja esindajana, vaid osanikuna.
 

Kindlasti on sarnastes olukordades võimalikud erinevad õiguslikud lahendused ning eelpoolkirjeldatu on üks võimalikest. Antud juhul jättis kirjeldatud lahendus ja kohtu tegevus selle ettevõtte ellu, kuigi osanike vahelise tüli tõttu oleks ettevõte muutunud maksejõuetuks ja keegi ei oleks sellest miskit võitnud.  

JAGA POSTITUST

168 thoughts on “Ettevõtte saneerimine osakapitali suurendamise kaudu – üks võimalik abinõu?”

  1. There are some fascinating points in time in this article but I don’t know if I see all of them heart to heart. There’s some validity however I will take hold opinion till I look into it further. Good article , thanks and we want more! Added to FeedBurner as properly

  2. Hi, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just curious if you get a lot of spam remarks? If so how do you stop it, any plugin or anything you can advise? I get so much lately it’s driving me crazy so any support is very much appreciated.

  3. Pretty portion of content. I simply stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to claim that I acquire actually loved account your weblog posts. Anyway I’ll be subscribing in your feeds or even I success you get entry to constantly quickly.

  4. I am a student of BAK College. The recent paper competition gave me a lot of headaches, and I checked a lot of information. Finally, after reading your article, it suddenly dawned on me that I can still have such an idea. grateful. But I still have some questions, hope you can help me.

  5. Your style is so unique in comparison to other people
    I have read stuff from. Many thanks for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess
    I’ll just book mark this blog.

  6. I got this web site from my friend who informed me about
    this website and now this time I am browsing this web page
    and reading very informative articles or reviews here.

  7. I need to to thank you for this very good read!!
    I definitely enjoyed every little bit of it. I’ve got you book marked
    to check out new stuff you post…

  8. Thanks a lot for sharing this with all folks you really recognize what
    you’re talking about! Bookmarked. Please additionally discuss with my site =).
    We could have a link change arrangement among us

  9. Hello there! I simply want to give you a big thumbs up for your great information you’ve got right here on this post.
    I am coming back to your web site for more soon.

  10. I may need your help. I tried many ways but couldn’t solve it, but after reading your article, I think you have a way to help me. I’m looking forward for your reply. Thanks.

  11. Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all people you really recognize what you are talking approximately! Bookmarked. Please also discuss with my web site =). We will have a link trade agreement among us

  12. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own blog and was wondering what all is required to get set up? I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny? I’m not very internet savvy so I’m not 100% sure. Any tips or advice would be greatly appreciated. Thank you

  13. Hello! Do you know if they make any plugins to help with SEO? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good gains. If you know of any please share. Thanks!

  14. I am curious to find out what blog system you have been utilizing? I’m experiencing some minor security problems with my latest site and I would like to find something more risk-free. Do you have any suggestions?

  15. I always used to read piece of writing in news papers but now as I am a user of internet so from now I am using net for posts, thanks to web.

  16. you are really a good webmaster. The web site loading speed is incredible. It sort of feels that you are doing any unique trick. Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you have performed a fantastic process in this topic!

  17. I’m not positive where you are getting your info, however good topic. I needs to spend a while learning more or understanding more. Thank you for magnificent information I used to be looking for this information for my mission.

  18. I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here. The sketch is tasteful, your authored subject matter stylish. nonetheless, you command get bought an edginess over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come further formerly again since exactly the same nearly a lot often inside case you shield this increase.

  19. I am extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays.

  20. Yesterday, while I was at work, my sister stole my iPad and tested to see if it can survive a forty foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My iPad is now broken and she has 83 views. I know this is entirely off topic but I had to share it with someone!

  21. After looking over a few of the blog posts on your web page, I really like your way of blogging. I saved it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back soon. Take a look at my web site as well and let me know how you feel.

  22. Ahaa, its good conversation concerning this article here at this webpage, I have read all that, so now me also commenting here.

  23. Woah! I’m really loving the template/theme of this website. It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s challenging to get that “perfect balance” between user friendliness and visual appearance. I must say you have done a very good job with this. Additionally, the blog loads very fast for me on Opera. Exceptional Blog!

  24. Greetings I am so glad I found your web site, I really found you by error, while I was browsing on Aol for something else, Anyhow I am here now and would just like to say kudos for a incredible post and a all round exciting blog (I also love the theme/design), I dont have time to browse it all at the minute but I have saved it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read much more, Please do keep up the excellent b.

  25. Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer for your site. You have some really great posts and I think I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please blast me an e-mail if interested. Kudos!

  26. I am curious to find out what blog system you are utilizing? I’m experiencing some minor security problems with my latest site and I would like to find something more safe. Do you have any solutions?

  27. Добро пожаловать на сайт онлайн казино, мы предлагаем уникальный опыт для любителей азартных игр.

  28. Онлайн казино отличный способ провести время, главное помните, что это развлечение, а не способ заработка.

  29. I am extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself? Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one these days.

  30. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates. I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

  31. Хотите получить идеально ровный пол в своей квартире или офисе? Обратитесь к профессионалам на сайте styazhka-pola24.ru! Мы предоставляем услуги по устройству стяжки пола в Москве и области, а также гарантируем доступные цены и высокое качество работ.

  32. На mehanizirovannaya-shtukaturka-moscow.ru вы найдете бесподобные услуги механизированной штукатурки. Экономьте время, гарантируйте себе качество.

  33. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. This is a very well written article. I will be sure to bookmark it and come back to read more of your useful information. Thank you for the post. I will definitely comeback.

  34. What’s up to all, how is all, I think every one is getting more from this web site, and your views are good in favor of new people.

  35. Greetings! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a collection of volunteers and starting a new initiative in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us valuable information to work on. You have done a outstanding job!

  36. Simply wish to say your article is as surprising. The clearness for your publish is simply nice and i can think you are knowledgeable in this subject. Well with your permission allow me to seize your RSS feed to stay up to date with imminent post. Thank you one million and please keep up the gratifying work.

  37. Its like you read my mind! You seem to understand so much approximately this, like you wrote the guide in it or something. I feel that you could do with some p.c. to pressure the message house a bit, however other than that, this is fantastic blog. An excellent read. I’ll definitely be back.

  38. Hello there I am so happy I found your web site, I really found you by mistake, while I was browsing on Askjeeve for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say many thanks for a incredible post and a all round interesting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to browse it all at the minute but I have book-marked it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read much more, Please do keep up the awesome job.

  39. you are in reality a just right webmaster. The site loading speed is incredible. It sort of feels that you are doing any unique trick. Also, The contents are masterpiece. you have performed a great process in this topic!

  40. With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright violation? My site has a lot of completely unique content I’ve either created myself or outsourced but it looks like a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my authorization. Do you know any solutions to help stop content from being ripped off? I’d certainly appreciate it.

  41. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to make your point. You clearly know what youre talking about, why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your site when you could be giving us something enlightening to read?

  42. Hi there! I realize this is kind of off-topic but I had to ask. Does operating a well-established blog like yours take a massive amount work? I’m completely new to blogging but I do write in my diary daily. I’d like to start a blog so I will be able to share my experience and thoughts online. Please let me know if you have any ideas or tips for new aspiring bloggers. Appreciate it!

  43. Вперед, к победе и новым высотам с Lucky Jet на 1win – самой прибыльной игрой в мире азарта. Стань королем Лаки Джет – разбей рекорды и выигрывай больше всех на официальном сайте 1win. Играй в Lucky Jet онлайн на деньги и покоряй новые вершины азарта с нашими яркими и захватывающими играми.

  44. Hi! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new iphone! Just wanted to say I love reading your blog and look forward to all your posts! Keep up the excellent work!

  45. What’s up, yeah this piece of writing is really pleasant and I have learned lot of things from it concerning blogging. thanks.

  46. Hello, I believe your website may be having browser compatibility issues. When I look at your web site in Safari, it looks fine however, if opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping issues. I simply wanted to give you a quick heads up! Besides that, great blog!

  47. It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or suggestions. Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I wish to read more things about it!

  48. Rastreador de celular – Aplicativo de rastreamento oculto que registra localização, SMS, áudio de chamadas, WhatsApp, Facebook, foto, câmera, atividade de internet. Melhor para controle dos pais e monitoramento de funcionários. Rastrear Telefone Celular Grátis – Programa de Monitoramento Online.

  49. Melhor aplicativo de controle parental para proteger seus filhos – Monitorar secretamente secreto GPS, SMS, chamadas, WhatsApp, Facebook, localização. Você pode monitorar remotamente as atividades do telefone móvel após o download e instalar o apk no telefone de destino.

  50. Spot on with this write-up, I honestly think this site needs much more attention. I’ll probably be back again to read through more, thanks for the info!

  51. It’s remarkable to pay a visit this web site and reading the views of all mates about this piece of writing, while I am also keen of getting familiarity.

  52. Hi my family member! I want to say that this article is awesome, great written and come with almost all important infos. I’d like to peer more posts like this .

  53. Your style is really unique compared to other people I have read stuff from. Many thanks for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I will just bookmark this site.

  54. Heya fantastic blog! Does running a blog similar to this take a great deal of work? I have virtually no expertise in computer programming but I was hoping to start my own blog soon. Anyways, if you have any suggestions or tips for new blog owners please share. I know this is off topic but I just had to ask. Thanks!

  55. An impressive share! I have just forwarded this onto a colleague who was doing a little research on this. And he in fact bought me breakfast simply because I discovered it for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending the time to discuss this topic here on your site.

  56. Terrific article! This is the type of information that are meant to be shared around the internet. Disgrace on the seek engines for now not positioning this publish upper! Come on over and visit my site . Thank you =)

  57. Have you ever thought about publishing an e-book or guest authoring on other sites? I have a blog centered on the same information you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would enjoy your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e mail.

  58. I am actually glad to read this website posts which includes plenty of helpful information, thanks for providing these information.

  59. I used to be recommended this blog via my cousin. I am not positive whether this post is written via him as no one else recognize such particular approximately my difficulty. You are wonderful! Thank you!

  60. Hi are using WordPress for your blog platform? I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and create my own. Do you need any coding knowledge to make your own blog? Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  61. I am extremely inspired with your writing talents and alsosmartly as with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid subject or did you customize it yourself? Either way stay up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to peer a nice blog like this one nowadays..

  62. I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as no one else know such detailed about my difficulty. You are amazing! Thanks!

  63. I’m gone to inform my little brother, that he should also pay a visit this webpage on regular basis to take updated from most up-to-date gossip.

  64. Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all people you really recognize what you are talking approximately! Bookmarked. Please also visit my web site =). We will have a link exchange contract among us

  65. I think this is one of the most significant information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But want to remark on few general things, The website style is ideal, the articles is really nice : D. Good job, cheers

  66. I think what you postedtypedthink what you postedtypedthink what you postedwrotebelieve what you postedtypedsaidWhat you postedtyped was very logicala ton of sense. But, what about this?think about this, what if you were to write a killer headlinetitle?content?typed a catchier title? I ain’t saying your content isn’t good.ain’t saying your content isn’t gooddon’t want to tell you how to run your blog, but what if you added a titleheadlinetitle that grabbed a person’s attention?maybe get people’s attention?want more? I mean %BLOG_TITLE% is a little plain. You ought to look at Yahoo’s home page and see how they createwrite news headlines to get viewers interested. You might add a related video or a pic or two to get readers interested about what you’ve written. Just my opinion, it could bring your postsblog a little livelier.

  67. I’m really enjoying the design and layout of your blog. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more enjoyable for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a designer to create your theme? Fantastic work!

  68. Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text in your post seem to be running off the screen in Chrome. I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with internet browser compatibility but I thought I’d post to let you know. The layout look great though! Hope you get the problem resolved soon. Many thanks

  69. Great beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your site, how can i subscribe for a blog site? The account aided me a acceptable deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided bright clear concept

  70. whoah this blog is magnificent i really like reading your articles. Stay up the good work! You realize, many individuals are hunting around for this info, you can help them greatly.

  71. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed browsing your blog posts. In any case I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again soon!

  72. I’m not sure where you are getting your info, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more. Thanks for magnificent information I was looking for this information for my mission.

  73. Can I simply say what a relief to find someone who truly knows what they’re talking about on the net. You certainly know how to bring an issue to light and make it important. More people ought to read this and understand this side of the story. It’s surprising you aren’t more popular since you definitely have the gift.

  74. I think what you postedwrotesaidbelieve what you postedwrotesaidbelieve what you postedwrotebelieve what you postedwroteWhat you postedtyped was very logicala bunch of sense. But, what about this?think about this, what if you were to write a killer headlinetitle?content?wrote a catchier title? I ain’t saying your content isn’t good.ain’t saying your content isn’t gooddon’t want to tell you how to run your blog, but what if you added a titleheadlinetitle that grabbed people’s attention?maybe get people’s attention?want more? I mean %BLOG_TITLE% is a little plain. You ought to look at Yahoo’s home page and watch how they createwrite post headlines to get viewers interested. You might add a video or a related picture or two to get readers interested about what you’ve written. Just my opinion, it could bring your postsblog a little livelier.

  75. Hmm it seems like your website ate my first comment (it was extremely long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I submitted and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I as well am an aspiring blog blogger but I’m still new to the whole thing. Do you have any recommendations for beginner blog writers? I’d genuinely appreciate it.

  76. Very good blog! Do you have any tips and hints for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own website soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you advise starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m totally confused .. Any ideas? Cheers!

Lisa kommentaar

Sinu e-postiaadressi ei avaldata.